pelalian influenza

Hari Sabtu lepas, kami ke Shibui Kodomo Clinic untuk mendapatkan suntikan pelalian influenza untuk dos kedua hanya untuk anak2. Alhamdulillah semua sihat dan bolehlah habiskan dos yang kedua. Seperti biasa, Zakwan dan Zarul dengan jarum 0.2mm dan Alya dengan jarum 0.3mm. Anak2 langsung tidak berasa sakit semasa disuntik. Barulah berasa lega dan semoga tahun ini tidak dijangkiti demam influenza.
Petangnya pula, terasa mahu makan puding karamel selepas terbaca resipinya di blog Nana. Mula2, Alya tolong menyediakan bahan2, tetapi bila karamel sudah siap, teruskan lupakan tugas dan makan karamel dengan adik2nya. Cara membuatnya sangat mudah dan hasilnya sangat memuaskan kerana anak2 siap puji dengan kata2 (kanak2 tak menipu kan..hehe) seperti 美味しい「おいしい」(oishi: sedap), パパのプリンが世界一美味しい(Puding yang Papa buat paling sedap di dunia) dll. Tidak sempat tunggu puding betul2 sejuk kerana anak2 terliur dengan bau yang menyelerakan. Tiada gambar kerana puding hilang dalam sekelip mata. Anak2 minta buat lagi, tetapi memandangkan kalori yang tersangat tinggi, terpaksa minta “tundakan”. TQ Nana.
Cuaca pun sudah semakin sejuk, hari ini suhu “single digit” sehingga ke malam. Esok pun diramalkan suhu yang sama dan bermulalah musim tinggal di dalam peti sejuk dan tahun ini mungkin tiada hibernasi kerana sibuk mahu menyiapkan kerja2 yang tertangguh.

Ini ada informasi mengenai Influenza:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Influenza
Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). The name influenza comes from the Italian: influenza, meaning “influence”, (Latin: influentia). In humans, common symptoms of the disease are chills and fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort. In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly in young children and the elderly. Although it is sometimes confused with the common cold, influenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus.Influenza can produce nausea and vomiting, especially in children, but these symptoms are more characteristic of the unrelated gastroenteritis, which is sometimes called “stomach flu” or “24-hour flu”.

Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings. Influenza can also be transmitted by saliva, nasal secretions, feces and blood. Infections also occur through contact with these body fluids or with contaminated surfaces. Flu viruses can remain infectious for about one week at human body temperature, over 30 days at 0 °C (32 °F), and for much longer periods at very low temperatures. Most influenza strains can be inactivated easily by disinfectants and detergents.

Flu spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands annually — millions in pandemic years . Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans. Often, these new strains result from the spread of an existing flu virus to humans from other animal species. A deadly avian strain named H5N1 has posed the greatest risk for a new influenza pandemic since it first killed humans in Asia in the 1990s. Fortunately, this virus has not mutated to a form that spreads easily between people.

Vaccinations against influenza are usually given to people in developed countries with a minor risk of contracting the disease[10] and to farmed poultry. The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. Typically, this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus changes rapidly over time, and different strains become dominant. Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being particularly effective.

Vaccination and infection control
Vaccination against influenza with an influenza vaccine is often recommended for high-risk groups, such as children and the elderly. Influenza vaccines can be produced in several ways; the most common method is to grow the virus in fertilized hen eggs. After purification, the virus is inactivated (for example, by treatment with detergent) to produce an inactivated-virus vaccine. Alternatively, the virus can be grown in eggs until it loses virulence and the avirulent virus given as a live vaccine. The effectiveness of these influenza vaccines is variable. Due to the high mutation rate of the virus, a particular influenza vaccine usually confers protection for no more than a few years. Every year, the World Health Organization predicts which strains of the virus are most likely to be circulating in the next year, allowing pharmaceutical companies to develop vaccines that will provide the best immunity against these strains. Vaccines have also been developed to protect poultry from avian influenza. These vaccines can be effective against multiple strains and are used either as part of a preventative strategy, or combined with culling in attempts to eradicate outbreaks.

It is possible to get vaccinated and still get influenza. The vaccine is reformulated each season for a few specific flu strains but cannot possibly include all the strains actively infecting people in the world for that season. It takes about six months for the manufacturers to formulate and produce the millions of doses required to deal with the seasonal epidemics; occasionally, a new or overlooked strain becomes prominent during that time and infects people although they have been vaccinated (as by the H3N2 Fujian flu in the 2003–2004 flu season). It is also possible to get infected just before vaccination and get sick with the very strain that the vaccine is supposed to prevent, as the vaccine takes about two weeks to become effective.

The 2006–2007 season was the first in which the CDC had recommended that children younger than 59 months receive the annual influenza vaccine. Vaccines can cause the immune system to react as if the body were actually being infected, and general infection symptoms (many cold and flu symptoms are just general infection symptoms) can appear, though these symptoms are usually not as severe or long-lasting as influenza. The most dangerous side-effect is a severe allergic reaction to either the virus material itself or residues from the hen eggs used to grow the influenza; however, these reactions are extremely rare.

Good personal health and hygiene habits are reasonably effective in avoiding and minimizing influenza. People who contract influenza are most infective between the second and third days after infection and infectivity lasts for around ten days. Children are notably more infectious than adults and shed virus from just before they develop symptoms until two weeks after infection.

Since influenza spreads through aerosols and contact with contaminated surfaces, it is important to persuade people to cover their mouths while sneezing and to wash their hands regularly. Surface sanitizing is recommended in areas where influenza may be present on surfaces. Alcohol is an effective sanitizer against influenza viruses, while quaternary ammonium compounds can be used with alcohol to increase the duration of the sanitizing action. In hospitals, quaternary ammonium compounds and halogen-releasing agents such as sodium hypochlorite are commonly used to sanitize rooms or equipment that have been occupied by patients with influenza symptoms. During past pandemics, closing schools, churches and theaters slowed the spread of the virus but did not have a large effect on the overall death rate.

p/s: sedang menunggu sesuatu yang masih belum sampai….???

-nash-

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